This document discusses the highlights of my research career. Each section provides a brief introduction to the physics issues, but makes no attempt to review those subjects or to cite the most definitive literature. Instead, I cite the most significant of my own contributions only, where the numbering restarts in each section. Although there is overlap, the major topics are arranged roughly in reverse chronological order; several minor topics are omitted. A complete list of my publications is provided at publications.

- Pion electroproduction
- Nucleon form factors
- Nucleon knockout by electron scattering
- Effective interaction for nucleon-nucleus scattering
- Nuclear structure

Along the way, I developed several software packages and have made some of them available to other researchers.

- jjklib - a Fortran library of numerical and physics routines used by many of my programs.
- allfit - versatile lineshape fitting program for analysis of spectra for many nuclear reactions.
- lea - versatile program for studing nucleon-nucleus scattering or nucleon knockout by electron scattering.
- epiprod - calculates pion or eta electroproduction. Includes Rosenbluth, Legendre, and multipole analysis of data.

Transition form factors for electroexcitation of nucleon resonances provide
important tests of models of hadronic structure; furthermore, one hopes that
accurate QCD calculations will soon become available for these quantities. These
form factors are usually deduced from analyses of resonant electroproduction of
pseudoscalar mesons, but such analyses are complicated by nonresonant
mechanisms, final-state interactions, and the overlap of several broad
resonances. Therefore, it is important to perform multipole analyses of both
cross section and polarization data, rather than rely upon model calculations.
Polarization observables depend upon interferences between various products of
multipole amplitudes, which enhances the sensitivity to smaller contributions
and provides the relative phases between those amplitudes. That information then
helps to distinguish between resonant, nonresonant, and nondominant resonant
contributions. A former student (T. Payerle) and I developed a code that
evaluates recoil-polarization observables for pion electroproduction,
epiprod,
beginning in 1992. I then extended the code to include
η production, target polarization, and to
perform fits to comprehensive data sets using Legendre coefficients or complex
multipole amplitudes. The code also includes interfaces to Monte Carlo
simulations and provides pseudodata options for optimization of experimental
proposals or for testing internal consistency.

I led Jefferson Lab experiment
e91011 that
measured angular distributions of recoil polarization response functions for
neutral pion electroproduction at *Q ^{2}* = 1 (GeV/

I also implemented a unitary isobar model that permits one to distinguish between resonant and nonresonant contributions to various partial waves. Thus, we see evidence in the 1- multipoles of predominantly longitudinal excitation of the Roper resonance. [2] This is consistent with the interpretation of this state as a radial excitation of the nucleon and tends to exclude hybrid models with significant excitation of the gluon field. This model also suggests that the

*Recoil Polarization for Delta Excitation in Pion Electroproduction*,*et al*., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 102001 (2005)*Recoil polarization measurements for neutral pion electroproduction at Q*, J. J. Kelly^{2}= 1 (GeV/c)^{2}near the Delta resonance*et al.,*nucl-ex/0509004 (submitted to Phys. Rev. C)*Accuracy of traditional Legendre estimators of quadrupole ratios for the N**→Δ transition*, J. J. Kelly, Phys. Rev. C 72, 048201 (2005)

*Recoil Polarization for Neutral Pion Electroproduction near the Delta Resonance,*J. J. Kelly, Fizika B 13, 81 (2004)*Backward electroproduction of π*^{0}mesons on protons in the region of nucleon resonances at four momentum squared*Q*, G. Laveissiere^{2}=1.0 GeV^{2}*et al*., Phys. Rev. C 69, 045203 (2004)*Polarization measurements in neutral pion photoproduction*,*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 66, 034614 (2002)*Search for Quadrupole Strength in the Electroexcitation of the Δ*,^{+}(1232)*et al*., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2963 (2001)*Measuring longitudinal amplitudes for electroproduction of pseudoscalar mesons using recoil polarization in parallel kinematics*, J. J. Kelly, Phys. Rev. C 60, 054611 (1999)*Recoil polarization in electroproduction of mesons*,*Induced proton polarization for π*, G. A. Warren^{0}electroproduction at Q^{2}=0.126 (GeV/c)^{2}around the Δ(1232) resonance*et al.,*Phys. Rev. C 58, 3722 (1998)

Nucleon electromagnetic form factors provide important tests of models of
nucleon structure and hopefully accurate lattice QCD calculations will become
available soon. Accurate measurements of these form factors are also needed for
many applications in nuclear physics and even for studies of parity violation in
atomic physics. Although magnetic form factors can be obtained from cross
section measurements, it becomes increasingly difficult to obtain precise data
for electric form factors as *Q ^{2}* increases. Indeed, the model
dependence for extractions of the neutron electric form factor,

I was a major participant in the first proof-of-principle for this technique
[1], where *G _{En}* was measured at MIT-Bates using the

One of the first experiments to be performed in Hall A of Jefferson Lab
measured the ratio of electric and magnetic form factors for the proton, *G _{Ep}/G_{Mp}*.
[5,6] The experiment was designed primarily as a calibration of the new
focal-plane polarimeter and almost everyone expected the form factor ratio to be
close to unity over the entire range of

Nonrelativistically the Sachs electric and magnetic form factors are simply
Fourier transforms of the charge and magnetization densities of the nucleon. Although this intuitively appealing relationship is not relativistically
invariant, it is still interesting to parametrize the form factors using radial
densities. I developed a model [9] that incorporates Lorentz contraction, is
consistent with dimensional scaling at large *Q ^{2}*, and expands
nucleon charge and magnetization densities using complete sets of radial basis
functions; thus, one obtains radial densities with realistic error envelopes.Thus, I found that recoil polarization data for the proton show that the
charge density is broader than the magnetization density for the proton.
Similarly, the magnetization density is slightly broader for the neutron than
for the proton. Combining neutron and proton charge densities, I used a
two-flavor model to deduce

*Electric form factor of the neutron from the*,^{2}H(e,e'n)^{1}H reaction at Q^{2}=0.255 (GeV/c)^{2}*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 50, R1749 (1994)*Measurements of G*, R. Madey_{En}/G_{Mn}from the^{2}H(e,e'n)^{1}H Reaction to Q^{2}= 1.45 (GeV/c)^{2}*et al.,*Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 122002 (2003)*Measurements of the neutron electric to magnetic form factor ratio G*,_{En}/G_{Mn}via the^{2}H(e,e'n)^{1}H reaction to Q^{2}= 1.45 (GeV/c)^{2}*et al.,*Phys. Rev. C 73, 025205 (2006)*Measurement of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron at Q*, G. Warren^{2 }= 0.5 and 1.0 GeV^{2}/c^{2}*et al*., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 042301 (2004)*G*, M. K. Jones_{Ep}/G_{Mp}Ratio by Polarization Transfer in e-vector p → ep-vector*et al.*, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1398 (2000)*Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q*, V. Punjabi^{2}= 3.5 GeV^{2}by polarization transfer*et al.,*Phys. Rev. C 71, 055202 (2005)*Measurements of the elastic electromagnetic form factor ratio µG*, O. Gayou_{Ep}/G_{Mp}via polarization transfer*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 64, 038202 (2001)*Measurement of G*, O. Gayou_{Ep}/G_{Mp}in e-vector p → ep-vector to Q^{2}=5.6 GeV^{2}*et al.*, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 092301 (2002)*Nucleon charge and magnetization densities from Sachs form factors*, J. J. Kelly, Phys. Rev. C 66, 065203 (2002)*Simple parametrization of nucleon form factors*, J. J. Kelly, Phys. Rev. C 70, 068202 (2004)

*Measurement of the magnetic form factor of the neutron*, P. Markowitz*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 48, R5 (1993)*Performance of a neutron polarimeter to measure the electric form factor of the neutron*, T. Eden*et al.*, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 338, 432 (1994)*Neutron detection efficiency for the measurement of the*T. Eden^{2}H(e,e'n)^{1}H cross section,*et al.,*Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 405, 60 (1998)*Comparison of polarization observables in electron scattering from the proton and deuteron*, B. D. Milbrath*et al.*, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 452 (1998)*Parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in ep scattering,*K. A. Aniol*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 69, 065501 (2004)

Nucleon knockout by electron scattering provides a powerful probe of the electromagnetic properties of nucleons and of the momentum distributions in nuclei. Since the nucleus is transparent with respect to the electromagnetic interaction, the entire nuclear volume can be probed uniformly. The weakness of the electromagnetic interaction allows one to separate the soft Coulomb distortion of the electron scattering process from the hard-scattering event in which, to a very good approximation, a single virtual photon transfers its energy and momentum to the nuclear electromagnetic current. The kinematic flexibility of electron scattering permits the momentum and energy transfers to be varied independently, with various kinematical conditions emphasizing different aspects of the reaction mechanism. For example, under conditions in which a single high-energy nucleon receives most of the energy transfer, the quasifree electron-nucleon scattering process is emphasized.

In 1991-92 I used a sabbatical at NIKHEF-K (Netherlands) to learn the physics
of (e,e' N) reactions and started working on a major review article that was
published a few years later [1]. I expanded my
LEA code to describe
both (N,N') and (e,e' N) reactions in a consistent framework, using the local
density approximation
for the electromagnetic current and density dependence in
the final-state interactions based upon my previous work on proton scattering. A
microscopic coupled-channels method was implemented for both reactions [2,3];
mine is still the only code with that capability for the (e,e' N) reaction. In a
subsequent series of papers I investigated the relationship between nuclear
transparency and nucleon elastic scattering [4], gauge and Gordon ambiguities in
the current operator [5], the radial dependence of the nucleon effective mass
[6], the contributions of channel coupling at large missing momentum [7],
sensitivity of electromagnetic knockout to density dependence of nucleon form
factors [7], and the sensitivity of left-right asymmetry to dynamical
enhancement of lower of Dirac spinors in the nuclear mean field [8,9]. The role
of spinor distortion in (e,e' p) reactions is now well-established
experimentally [9-11]. I performed the calculations that were compared with the
first measurements of induced polarization for (e,e' p) and provided an
intuitive explanation for the effect of the spin-orbit potential [12]. I made
the first calculations of the sensitivity of polarization measurements for
quasifree (e,e' N) to possible density dependence of nucleon form factors [8]
and participated in experiments [13-15] that provided evidence for a small but
apparently significant effect for the proton. I performed analyses of
spectroscopic factors for ^{16}O(e,e' p) [10,11] and ^{12}C(e,e'
p) [16], showing that consistent results are obtained using the relativistic
distorted wave impulse approximation with little evidence for the *Q ^{2}*
dependence that was claimed by a previous nonrelativistic analysis. I also
demonstrated consistency between exclusive and quasifree semi-inclusive

*Nucleon knockout by intermediate energy electrons*, J. J. Kelly*,*Adv. Nucl. Phys. 23, 75 (1996)*Microscopic coupled-channels analysis of*, J. J. Kelly, Phys. Rev. C 46, 711 (1992)^{9}Be(p,p') for 100 ≤ E_{p}≤ 500 MeV*Proton scattering off*, L. J. de Bever^{9}Be and the final-state interaction in the (e,e'p) and (γ,p) reactions on^{10}B*et al.*, Nucl. Phys. A579, 13 (1994)*Nuclear transparency to intermediate-energy protons*, J. J. Kelly,*Gauge ambiguities in (e,e'N) reactions*, J. J. Kelly*,*Phys. Rev. C 56, 2672 (1997)*Radial dependence of the nucleon effective mass in*, L. J. de Bever^{10}B*et al.,*Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3924 (1998)*Channel coupling in A(e,e' N)B reactions*, J. J. Kelly, Phys. Rev. C 59, 3256 (1999)*Effects of spinor distortion and density-dependent form factors upon quasifree*, J. J. Kelly, Phys. Rev. C 60, 044609 (1999)^{16}O(e,e'p)*Influence of the Dirac sea on proton electromagnetic knockout*, J. J. Kelly, Phys. Rev. C 72, 014602 (2005)*Dynamical Relativistic Effects in Quasielastic 1p-Shell Proton Knockout from*, J. Gao^{16}O*et al.*, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3265 (2000)*Dynamics of the quasielastic*K. G. Fissum^{16}O(e,e'p) reaction at Q^{2 }=0.8 (GeV/c)^{2},*et al*., Phys. Rev. C 70, 034606 (2004)*Measurement of the induced proton polarization P*, R. J. Woo_{n}in the^{12}C(e,e'p) reaction*et al.,*Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 456 (1998)*Polarization transfer in the*, S. Malov^{16}O(e,e'p)^{15}N reaction*et al*., Phys. Rev. C 62, 057302 (2000)*Polarization transfer in the*, S. Dieterich^{4}He(e,e'p)^{3}H reaction*et al.,*Phys. Lett. B 500, 47 (2001)*Polarization Transfer in the*, S. Strauch^{4}He(e,e'p)^{3}H Reaction up to Q^{2}= 2.6 (GeV/c)^{2}*et al.,*Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 052301 (2003)*Relativistic distorted wave impulse approximation analysis of*, J. J. Kelly, Phys. Rev. C 71, 064610 (2005)^{12}C(e,e'p) for Q^{2}< 2 (GeV/c)^{2}

*Reaction*, R. W. Lourie^{12}C(e,e'p) in the Dip Region*et al.*, Phys. Rev. Lett., 56, 2364 (1986)*Missing-Energy Dependence of the Separated Response Functions for the Reaction*, P .E. Ulmer^{12}C(e,e'p)*et al.*, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2259 (1987)*Neutron knockout and isobar excitation in quasi-free electron scattering*, S. Boffi, M. Radici, J. J. Kelly and T. M. Payerle, Nucl. Phys. A539, 597 (1992)*High-Momentum Protons in*, I. Bobeldijk^{208}Pb*et al.*, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2684 (1994)*Quasifree (e,e'p) reactions and proton propagation in nuclei*, D. J. Abbott*et al.,*Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5072 (1998).*Measurements of the deuteron elastic structure function A(Q*, L. C. Alexa^{2}) for 0.7 < Q^{2}< 6.0 (GeV/c)^{2}at Jefferson Laboratory*et al.,*Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1374 (1999)*Separated spectral functions for the quasifree*D. Dutta^{12}C(e,e'p) reaction,*et al.,*Phys. Rev. C 61, 061602(R) (2000)*Polarization Measurements in High-Energy Deuteron Photodisintegration*, K. Wijesooriya*et al.,*Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2975 (2001)*Dynamics of the*, N. Liyanage^{16}O(e,e'p) Reaction at High Missing Energies*et al*., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5670 (2001)*High energy angular distribution measurements of the exclusive deuteron photodisintegration reaction*, E. C. Schulte*et al.,*Phys. Rev. C 66, 042201(R) (2002)*Quasielastic (e,e'p) reaction on*, D. Dutta^{12}C,^{56}Fe, and^{197}Au*et al.,*Phys. Rev. C 68, 064603 (2003)*Measurement of the*, F. Benmokhtar^{3}He(e,e'p)pn Reaction at High Missing Energies and Momenta*et al*., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 082305 (2005)*Quasielastic*, M. M. Rvachev^{3}He(e,e'p)^{2}H Reaction at Q^{2}= 1.5 GeV^{2}for Recoil Momenta up to 1 GeV/c*et al.,*Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 192302 (2005)

I have written a comprehensive review of this subject: *Nucleon Knockout
by Intermediate Energy Electrons,* Advances in Nuclear Physics, Vol. 23, pp.
75-294 (ed. J.W. Negele and E. Vogt,
Plenum Press,
1996).

- Introduction
- One-Photon Exchange Approximation
- Nucleon Form Factors
- Proton Knockout Experiments on Few-Body Systems
- Distorted Wave Analysis of (e,e'N) Reactions
- Spectral Functions from (e,e'p) on Complex Nuclei
- Studies of the Reaction Mechanism for Nucleon Knockout
- Conclusions

*errata for book: *errata.ps*errata
for preprint: *preprint_errata.ps

The nucleon-nucleon effective interaction depends quite strongly on the local density of nuclear matter within the interaction region. In the nonrelativistic theory of nuclear matter, the two primary sources of this density dependence are Pauli blocking between identical fermions and dispersive effects due to the mean field. The isoscalar spin-independent central component of the effective interaction is affected most strongly. The dominant effect in the real part of this component can be described as a short-ranged repulsive interaction that is proportional to density and which simulates the anticorrelation between identical particles. The dominant effect on the imaginary part can be described as a Pauli blocking correction, proportional to the square of the local Fermi momentum, which represents the reduction of the available phase space for scattering and hence of the total cross section.

My Ph.D thesis provided the first definitive evidence for the importance of medium modifications of the nucleon-nucleon interaction to the interpretation of nucleon-nucleus scattering data. Differential cross sections for inelastic scattering of 135 MeV protons were measured for several states of 16-O. [1,2] The nuclear structure for these transitions was determined using electron scattering measurements of the transition charge densities. [3]Calculations for proton scattering were performed using the local density approximation (LDA). States whose transition densities have strong interior contributions were shown to be particularly sensitive to the high-density properties of the effective interaction, whereas surface-peaked transition densities are more sensitive to the low-density properties. This analysis demonstrated that the density-dependent corrections to proton scattering can be quite large, particularly for interior transition densities, and are described very well using the LDA. Most previous analyses relied on elastic scattering measurements, but elastic scattering averages over the nuclear volume and is dominated by the surface region where the corrections are relatively small. The radial localization of transition densities endows inelastic scattering with much greater sensitivity to the density dependence of the effective interaction.

However, although nuclear-matter calculations of the effective interaction
do provide a good qualitative description of the dominant effects, calculations
using different approximation schemes lead to quantitative differences that are
unacceptably large. Since the theory is not yet under adequate control, I have
developed a parametrization which accurately reproduces the density dependencies
of theoretical interactions but which is also suitable for phenomenological
analysis of scattering data. [4] I have also developed an efficient method for
fitting a linear expansion of the transition amplitude to scattering data for
many states among several targets simultaneously. This method, and the code
that implements it, is called
LEA for linear
expansion analysis. I performed and/or analyzed proton scattering experiments
for several targets over a wide range of projectile energy and have constructed empirical effective
interactions (EEI) for nucleon scattering in the energy range 135-650 MeV.
[5-11] I have shown that the effective
interaction depends primarily upon density and is practically independent of
target or state, thus validating the essential premise of the local density
approximation. However, contrary to the naive expectation of the LDA, the
effective interaction within a finite nucleus need not reduce to the free
interaction at low density. A nucleon found in the surface is aware of the
interior, and *vice versa*, so that density-dependent corrections persist
at low densities and are not saturated in the interior (at least for light- and
medium-weight nuclei).

My detailed comparisons of elastic and inelastic scattering demonstrate that
the density dependence of normal-parity isoscalar interaction is stronger for
inelastic than for elastic scattering, confirming the rearrangment contribution
predicted by Cheon *et al.* The LEA algorithm includes a self-consistency
cycle in which the distorted waves are generated using the same interaction that
drives the inelastic transition, with the Cheon rearrangement factor included.

In relativistic models of nucleon propagation through nuclear matter, the Dirac spinor is distorted by the scalar and vector mean fields. When reduced to Schrödinger-equivalent form, spinor distortion produces density-dependent contributions to the optical potential even for density-independent interactions. Since inelastic scattering requires distortion of four spinors, whereas elastic scattering distorts only three, the density dependence is automatically stronger for inelastic than for elastic scattering. Furnstahl and Wallace constructed an effective interaction based upon the IA2 version of the relativistic impulse approximation. Wallace and I extended the energy range, included Pauli blocking corrections and other smaller refinements, and applied the model to elastic and inelastic scattering by nuclei. [11] We also compared the IA2 effective interaction to the empirical effective interaction (EEI) and the available nonrelativistic theories.

The dominant effect of relativistic density dependence can be described as a short-ranged repulsive contribution to the real central interaction that is proportional to density and nearly independent of energy. This effect is similar to the density dependence of the corresponding component of the empirical effective interaction fitted to data for energy above 300 MeV, but is much stronger than obtained from either the empirical effective interaction or from nonrelativistic nuclear-matter theories for energies below 200 MeV. In addition, Pauli blocking damps the absorptive potential for energies below about 300 MeV; this effect is similar to that obtained from nonrelativistic models.

The density dependence of the IA2 interaction is too strong at low energy to reproduce the inelastic scattering data. Better agreement with the data, and with the EEI, is obtained at 318 MeV. By 500 MeV the IA2 model is in good agreement with the both the data and the EEI, whereas the nonrelativistic theory of the effective interaction fails to predict adequate density dependence. We have also shown that the IA2 models provides excellent predictions for proton absorption and neutron total cross sections.

*Signatures of density dependence in the two-nucleon effective interaction near 150 MeV*, J. Kelly*et al.*, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 2012 (1980)*Empirical effective interaction for 135 MeV nucleons*, J. J. Kelly, Phys. Rev. C 39, 2120 (1989)*Electroexcitation of isoscalar states in*, T. N. Buti^{16}O*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 33, 755 (1986)*Empirical effective interaction for 135 MeV nucleons*, J. J. Kelly, Phys. Rev. C 39, 2120 (1989)*Effective interactions and nuclear structure using 180 MeV protons. I.*, J. J. Kelly^{16}O(p,p')*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 41, 2504 (1990)*Effective interactions and nuclear structure using 180 MeV protons. II.*, Q. Chen^{28}Si(p,p')*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 41, 2514 (1990)*Effective interaction for*, J. J. Kelly^{16}O(p,p') at E_{p}=318 MeV*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 43, 1272 (1991)*Empirical density-dependent effective interaction for nucleon-nucleus scattering at 500 MeV*, B. S. Flanders*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 43, 2103 (1991)*Effective interaction for*, J. J. Kelly^{40}Ca(p,p') at E_{p}=318 MeV*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 44, 2602 (1991)*Effective interaction for*, H. Seifert^{16}O(p,p') and^{40}Ca(p,p') at E_{p}=200 MeV*et al.*, Phys. Rev. 47, 1615 (1993)*Comparison between relativistic and nonrelativistic models of the nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. I. Normal-parity isoscalar transitions*, J*.*J. Kelly and S.J. Wallace, Phys. Rev. C 49, 1315 (1994)

Extensive data tables for proton elastic and inelastic scattering at intermediate energies are available. Most of these data sets are available using the links tabulated below. For references and additional information, go to Data Tables.

target | proton energy (MeV) |
---|---|

^{9}Be |
55, 75, 100, 135, 180, 200, 318, 500 |

^{16}O |
100, 135, 180, 200, 318, 500 |

^{17}O |
135 |

^{18}O |
135 |

^{28}Si |
180 |

^{30}Si |
180 |

^{32}S |
318 |

^{34}S |
318 |

^{40}Ca |
100, 200, 318 |

^{42}Ca |
200, 318 |

^{44}Ca |
200, 318 |

^{48}Ca |
100, 200, 318 |

^{88}Sr |
200, 500 |

Transition charge and current densities can be measured very accurately using electron scattering and compared with models of nuclear structure. I participated in many studies of this type [1-12]. Comparable measurements of neutron transition densities require hadronic probes and careful calibration of the reaction models used to interpret the data. I developed methods for unfolding neutron transition densities from proton scattering data, constructing realistic error envelopes, and testing the accuracy of fitted densities. [13] Data for several different observables and for several different projectile energies can be analyzed simultaneously. I showed that the intrinsic radial sensitivity of intermediate energy protons to the neutron transition density is surprisingly good, and is optimal between about 200 and 500 MeV. Furthermore, I showed that the accuracy of densities unfolded from proton scattering data using the empirical effective interaction is consistent with uncertainty envelopes based upon the statistical uncertainties, penetrability, and range of momentum transfer. Tests include:

- equality between neutron and proton transition densities for
self-conjugate targets [14];

- comparison between isoscalar density fitted to proton scattering data
with proton density fitted to electron scattering data for self-conjugate
targets

[14];

- independence of fitted density from projectile energy [15];

- comparison with neutron/proton ratios deduced for mirror nuclei [16].

Hence, model-dependent errors are now under control. I obtained neutron
transition densities for many states among several targets and compared those
results with representative models of nuclear structure [14-20]. Contrary to
previous practice, it is rarely sufficient to assume that the neutron and proton
transition densities have the same shapes; the shape differences often reveal
the participation of different orbitals.

*Inelastic electron scattering from*, B. E. Norum^{18}O*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 25, 1778 (1982)*A test of the interacting boson approximation using electron scattering*, F. W. Hersman*et al.*, Phys. Lett. 132B, 47 (1983)*Inelastic electron scattering from*R. W. Lourie^{9}Be,*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 29, 489 (1983)*Electroexcitation of isoscalar states in*, T. N. Buti^{16}O*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 33, 755 (1986)*Inelastic electron scattering from collective levels of*, F. W. Hersman^{154}Gd*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 33, 1905 (1986)*Electroexcitation of M4 transitions in*, D. M. Manley^{17}O and^{18}O*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 34, 1214 (1986)*Electroexcitation of 4*, C.E. Hyde-Wright^{-}states in^{16}O*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 35, 880 (1987)*High-resolution inelastic electron scattering from*, D. M. Manley^{17}O*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 36, 1700 (1987)*Magnetic Structure of*, N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki^{17}O at High Momentum*et al.*, Phys. Rev. Lett 60, 1707 (1988)*Electroexcitation of rotational bands in*, D. M. Manley^{18}O*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 41, 448 (1990)*Electron scattering from*, J. P. Glickman^{9}Be*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 43, 1740 (1991)*Electroexcitation of negative-parity states in*, D. M. Manley^{18}O*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 43, 2147 (1991)*Intrinsic radial sensitivity of nucleon inelastic scattering*, J. J. Kelly, Phys. Rev. C 37, 520 (1988)*Neutron and proton transition densities from*, J. J. Kelly^{32,34}S(p,p') at E_{p}=318 MeV: I. Isoscalar densities for^{32}S*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 44, 1963 (1991)*Neutron transition densities for*, A. E. Feldman^{48}Ca from proton scattering at 200 and 318 MeV*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 49, 2068 (1994)*Neutron transition density for the lowest 2*,^{+}state of^{18}O*et al.*, Phys. Lett. 169B, 157 (1986)*Effective interactions and nuclear structure using 180 MeV protons. III.*, J. J. Kelly^{30}Si(p,p')*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 41, 2525 (1990)*Structure of*, S. Dixit^{9}Be from proton scattering at 180 MeV*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 43, 1758 (1991)*Neutron and proton transition densities from*, M. A. Khandaker^{32,34}S(p,p') at E_{p}=318 MeV: II. Neutron densities for^{34}S*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 44, 1978 (1991)*Neutron transition densities from*, J. J. Kelly^{88}Sr(p,p') at E_{p}=200 MeV*et al.*, Phys. Rev. C 47, 2146 (1993)

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