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Physics 273 - Fall 2005

Introductory Physics:
Waves and Optics

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Syllabus Weekly Assignments
Solution Sets

Classroom Demonstrations
Exam Dates

Course Description

Pre-requisites:  Phys 272 (fields) and Math 241 (multivariable calculus)
Co-requisites:  Math 246  or Math 414 (differential eqns)

Content:  Oscillations and AC circuits, Fourier series and integrals, waves on strings, sound; electromagnetic waves from Maxwell's equations in differential form; physical optics

Phys 273H - To receive honors credit, each student will prepare and present two class-room demonstrations on topics relevant to the course material.  Description is below.



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Physics 273 - Introductory Physics:  Waves and Optics

Instructor:  Professor E. Williams  (http://www.physics.umd.edu/spg/)
Room 2332 Physics,
Phone 301-405-6156
course web page:   http://www.physics.umd.edu/courses/Phys273/williams/index.html
e-mail:  edw@physics.umd.edu (include Phys 273 in subject line - otherwise e-mail may not be opened)
Office hours:  Tu and Wed, 10-11 AM

Teaching Assistant:  Mingdong Li
Room 4219 Physics
e-mail:  lmd@umd.edu
Office hours:  Wed, 1-3 PM

Class Location:

M Tu W Th  9:00 AM, Room 0405 Physics

Hirose and Langren, Introduction to Wave Phenomena, Krieger Publishing 2003
ISBN:  1-57524-231-1
Tipler and Mosca,  Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 5e, Vol. II, W.H. Freeman and Co.  2004.
ISBN:  0-7167-0810-8

Course Outline:  We will be covering material in Ch. 1-14 of Hirose and Langren at approximately one chapter per week.  Not all material in each chapter will be covered.  Material on Fourier techniques in Chapter 13 will be covered just after chapter 3.  Parallel material from Tipler and Mosca, chapters 29 - 34 will be assigned as reading and in problem sets. 

1. Problem sets, 1 set per week, due Thursday at or before the beginning of class.
Typically 6 - 8 problems assigned from the text books. 
2. Quizzes,  1 per week, normally on Tuesday, 10 minute quiz taken from pre-assigned example problems in text.
Each quiz will count as two additional homework problems on that week's problem set.
3. Exams:   October 11,  Nov. 15
4. Final Exam:  Cumulative examination with an emphasis on material after exam #2.
The University will formally assign a date later in the semester.  The most likely time appears to be
Monday, December 19, 8:00-10:00 AM
Use of a calculator is allowed and expected on examinations, quizzes and problem sets.

Accommodations for Students with Disabilities:

The University has a legal obligation to provide appropriate accommodations for students with documented disabilities.   In order to ascertain what accommodations may need to be provided, students with disabilities should inform me of their needs in the first week of the semester. 

Problem sets + Quizzes: 25%  
Exams:  75% (equal weight for each of the three exams)

Regular attendance and class participation is expected, and will serve as a differentiator for borderline grades.  Examples and demonstrations presented in class will be included in the material covered by examinations.  You should keep a well-organized class notebook and bring it with you when you need to discuss course material with the instructor or TA.  

Partial credit will be assigned on problem set and exam problems where work is clearly presented.  A higher standard will be expected for quiz problems, because you should have prepared by working through the pre-assigned problems and solutions in advance.

Missed assignments or exams

Late problem sets will not be accepted.  The two lowest problem set scores will be dropped.  Quizzes will take place in the last 15 minutes of class.  If you miss the class, you've missed the quiz.   Makeup examinations will only be given for those with a valid documented excuse (doctor's note, accident report, certifiable religious observance,  etc.).  If you know ahead of time that you will miss an exam, you must notify me before the exam.   If you miss an exam due to an emergency, let me know as soon as possible afterwards.   I consider requests for make-ups or any other special consideration to be governed by the precepts of academic honesty. 

Academic Honesty

Working together on assignments is encouraged.  However, each student is expected to do the assigned problems and write the problem sets independently, and hand in his or her own work for grading.  Examinations and quizzes are closed book and are expected to be worked totally independently.   For any questions about academic honesty, see University policies at:


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Assignment 11 - Dec. 1-13

H&L, Chapter 11, sections 1-7
Tipler Ch. 33, sections 1-4, 6-8

Quiz #11,
Thursday Dec. 8
H&L, Ch 11, examples 1, 4 and 5
Tipler, Ch 33, examples 1, 2, 5, 8, 9

Problem Set # 11
(due Tuesday, Dec. 13)
Problems 1-4        (see below)
Problems 5-7     H&L, problems 3, 4, 17
Problems 8- 15  Tipler Ch. 33, problems 18, 20, 26, 34, 42, 50, 58, 72

Problem 1: 
The amplitude of the electromagnetic field for the superposition of N coherent electromagnetic waves that differ in phase by equal multiples of angle φ is:   equation for diffracted electric field.
Find the expressions for the complex conjugate E*, and the intensity of the superposition  I=εcE*E.

Problem 2:  How many fringes of yellow-green light (λ = 570 nm) pass a fixed position on the detector of a Michelson interferometer when one of the mirrors is moved 0.001 mm?

Problem 3: 
The angle of first order diffraction from a grating is 15 degrees.  In an optics application, the diffraction beams of a given order act like a set of parallel rays emitted from different positions on the grating.  If the grating is positioned at s = 20 cm on the optical axis of a converging lens of focal length f = 12 cm, carefully draw the ray diagram for the first and second order diffraction beams emitted from two different positions on the source.  Find positions of the 4 beams in the focal plane.  What does your result mean?  

Problem 4: 
An electron has wave-like behavior that allows it to act like a plane wave of wavelength  equation for wavelength of an electron
(An angstrom Å is 0.1 nm.)  An electron that scatters off a crystalline surface gives rise to a diffraction pattern due to scattering from the periodic array of atoms on the surface.  (The first people to observe and correctly interpret this behavior were Davisson and Germer;  Davisson won the 1937 Physics Nobel prize for the discovery.)  The diffraction angles follow the same relationship as for a grating (for normal incidence), nλ = dsinθ, where d is the distance between the atoms. 

Find the wavelength of electrons accelerated through a potential of 120V (these electrons have energy 120 eV).
Find the angles for first and second order diffraction (n = ±1, n = ±2) when these electrons are scattered from a surface where the distance between atoms is 3Å.

Assignment 10 -
Nov. 16 - Dec. 1

Tipler, Ch. 31, sections 7,8
Tipler, Ch. 32
H&L, Chapter 12, sections 5, 8, 9

Quiz #10 assignment: 
(quiz on Tuesday, Nov. 29)
H&L, Ch 12,  Ex. 7
Tipler, Ch 32, Exs. 2, 4, 8, 9, 11, 16

Problem Set # 10
(due Thursday, Dec. 1)
H&L Ch. 12 # 5, 16, 19
Tipler  Ch. 31 # 58, 62
Tipler Ch. 32 # 30, 36, 54, 60, 74, 90, 102, 124
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Assignment 9 -
Nov. 3 - 10

Tipler, Ch. 31, sections 1-6
H&L, Chapter 12, sections 1-2

Quiz #9 assignment: 
(quiz on Tuesday, Nov. 8)
H&L, Ch 12,  Ex. 1 & 2
Tipler, Ch 31, Exs. 3-6

Problem Set # 9
(due Thursday, Nov. 10)
Problems 1-3 (below)
Tipler  Ch. 31 #22, 32, 39, 40, 48

Problem 1:  The power output of an antenna of length l, in which there is an oscillating current of amplitude Io and angular frequency ω is:

        P = (lωIo)2/(12εoc3).  

Treat the current in the antenna as the load (transmitted) current provided by a transmission line of impedance Z.  If we consider using a standard cable with Z = 50Ω, what power has to be provided into the transmission line to create an antenna output of 500 kW at frequency f = 1.20 MHz? 

2d wave equation
Problem 2: Show that a transverse wave : 
                                                       where :   

is a solution of the two-dimensional wave equation:

equation for refractive index
Problem 3:  The relationship between the impedance of a dielectric medium and the refractive index n is:

Show that when light traveling in free space (refractive index n = 1) is normally incident on the surface of a dielectric of refractive index n, the reflected intensity is Ir:

and the transmitted intensity is It:

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Assignment 8 - Oct. 27 - Nov. 3

Tipler, Ch. 30
H&L, Chapter 9, sections 4-6

Quiz #8 assignment: 
(quiz on Tuesday, Nov. 1)
H&L, Ch 9,  Ex. 7
Tipler, Ch 30, Exs. 3, 4, 6, 7

Problem Set # 8
(due Thursday, Nov. 3)
H&L Ch. 9, Problems 7, 9, 13
Tipler  Ch. 30 #11, 16, 31, 44, 46, 56

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Assignment 7 - Oct. 20 - 27

H&L, Chapter 6
H&L, Chapter 9, sections 1-4

Quiz #7 assignment: 
H&L, Ch 9, Exs. 1-4

Problem Set # 7
(due Thursday, October 27)
Problems 1-4      (see below)
Problems 5-10     H&L  Ch. 9 #1,2,3,5,6 (postponed to PS #8:  Ch. 9, #7)

Problem 1: 
In class we placed a loud speaker at one end of a tube with a movable plunger that created a rigid barrier part way down the tube.  We listened to the sound intensity as a function of the distance of the plunger from the open end of the tube, and found intensity maxima at 77 cm, 68 cm and 59 cm.  What was the frequency of the sound?

Problem 2:
A hanging spring of mass m’, and spring constant s (to avoid confusion with wave number k) is at a length L when it supports a mass M.  In addition normal harmonic motion, it can support standing waves with the mass M stationary.  The speed of wave motion on the stretched spring is v2 = sL2/m’.  Assume that the standing waves have the form:

    ξ = (Acoskz + Bsinkz) sinωt

and use the boundary conditions:

    ξ = 0 at z= 0  (z = 0 is the top of the suspended spring)

and        boundary condition equation      at z = L (the position of mass M at the bottom of the spring),

 to find A and B.  Use these to show that kLtan(kL) = m’/M.  Then expand tan(kL) in powers of kL to find the second order approximation that gives ω2 in terms of m’, M and L.

Problem 3: 
The relationship between the impedance Z and the refractive index n of a dielectric (like glass) is given by Z = 1/n.  Light traveling in free space with a wavelength of 5.5x10-7 m enters a glass lens that has a refractive index of 1.5.  Show that reflections at this wavelength can be avoided by coating the surface with a material of thickness 1.12x10-7 m and refractive index 1.22.  The refractive index of free space is n = 1. 

Problem 4: 
Find the percentage of energy reflected when a sound wave in water is normally incident on a planar surface of a) steel, b)  ice, given that

        ρc =      1.43x106 kg m-2s-1 for water 
            3.49 x106 kg m-2s-1 for ice
            3.9  x107 kg m-2s-1  for steel

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Assignment 6 - Oct. 6 - 20

H&L, Chapter 6
H&L, Chapter 7, sections 1-3
H&L, Chapter 8

Quiz #6 assignment ( Tuesday, Oct. 18, students with conflict due to religious observance should see me):

H&L, Ch 6, Exs. 1-4;  Ch 7, Ex. 1;  Ch. 8, Exs 1,2,3,5

Problem Set # 6 (due Thursday, October 20

Problems 1-5      (see below)
Problems 6-9       H&L  Ch. 6 #1,5,6,8
Problems 10,11   H&L  Ch 7 # 1,3
Problems 12,13   H&L  Ch 8 # 4,8

Problem 1:  The displacement of a wave on a string which is fixed at both ends is given by:   y(x,t) = Acos(ωt – kx) + rAcos(ωt+kx),   where r is the coefficient of amplitude reflection.  Show that this may be expressed as a sum of two standing waves:  
y(x,t) = B(cosωt)(coskx) + C(sinωt)(sinkx), and find expressions for B and C in terms of A and r.

Problem 2:  Standing acoustic waves are formed in a tube of length l, with a particle displacement form:  ξ(x,t) = (Acoskx+Bsinkx)sinωt.  Sketch the first three harmonics for each of the two cases:

a)  Both ends of the tube open, boundary conditions:  both right and left side ∂ξ/∂x = 0

b)  Left end of tube open, boundary condition, ∂ξ/∂x = 0; right end closed, boundary condition ξ = 0. 

Problem 3:  Show that z = Aexp(i{ωt - (k1x+k2y)} where k2 =  ω2/c2 = k12+k22 is a solution of the two dimensional wave equation:

            ∂2z/∂x2 + ∂2z/∂y2 = (1/c2)( ∂2z/∂t2). 

Problem 4:  An aircraft flying on a level course transmits a signal of 3x109 Hz, which is reflected from a distant point ahead on the flight path and received by the aircraft with a frequency difference of 15 kHz.  What is the aircraft speed?

Problem 5:  Show that the Doppler effect when the source and observer are not moving in the same direction yields:

      ν’ = ν c/(c-u’) ;        ν’’ = ν (c-v)/c ;        ν’’’ = ν (c-v)/(c-u),

if u and v are not the actual velocities, but the components of these velocities along the direction in which the waves reach the observer. 

Here ν’, ν’’ and ν’’’ represent respectively the cases of moving source, moving observer and both source & observer moving; with u = source velocity and v = observer velocity. 

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Assignment 5 - Sept. 29 - Oct. 6

H&L, Chapter 13, section 3
H&L, Chapter 5

Quiz #5 assignment:  (quiz Tuesday Oct. 4, students with conflict due to religious observance should see me)

H&L, Ch 13, Ex 3;  Ch 5, Exs   1, 2, 4, 6

Problem Set # 5 (due Thursday, October 6

Problems 1-3  (see below)
Problems 4-5  H&L Ch. 13 #2, 3
Problems 6-10  H&L Ch 5 # 4, 6, 9, 11

Problem 1:  A half-wave rectifier removes the negative half-cycles of a pure sinusoidal wave, y = hsin(x).  Show that the Fourier series is given by:

       series expansion of half-wave rectified sine wave

Problem 2:  Sound transmission in a gas:
a)  Show that in an ideal gas at temperature T, the average thermal velocity of a molecule is approximately equal to the velocity of sound.
b)  If the velocity of sound in air (density 1.29 kg/cubic meter) is 330 m/s, find the acoustic pressure for the painful sound intensity of 10 W/square meter.
c)  Find the displacement amplitude of an air molecule at the painful sound level of 10 W/square meter at 500 Hz. 
d)  Find the displacement amplitude of an air molecule at the barely audible level of 10-12 W/square meter at 500 Hz.

Problem 3:  A thin rod of copper has a Young’s modulus of 12.4x1010 Pa.  A copper rod is given a sharp compressional blow at one end.  The sound of the blow, traveling through air at 0 degrees centigrade, reaches the opposite end of the rod 6.4 ms later than the sound transmitted through the rod.  What is the length of the rod? 

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Assignment 4 -  Sept. 23 - 29

Reading:     H&L, Chapter 4, sections 1-4, 6
                     H&L, Chapter 7, section 4
                     H&L, Chapter 13, section 3

Quiz # 5 problems (quiz will be one of these): 

Ch 4, Ex 1, 2, 5;  Ch 7, Ex 2;  Ch 13, Ex 3

Problem Set # 4 (due Thursday, September 29)

Ch 4,   # 5, 6, 9, 10, 13  (omit momentum part of question on # 6)
Ch 7,   # 4
Postponed:  these will be assigned on PS # 5 -   Ch 13, # 2, 3

Assignment 3
-  Sept.  15 - 22
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H&L, Chapter 2, sections 5-7
H&L, Chapter 3
H&L, Chapter 13, sections 1 & 2

Quiz #4 problems (quiz will be one of these): 

H&L, Ch 2, examples 5&6, problem 10 (p. 48-9), problem 11 (p. 49)

Problem Set # 3 (due Thursday, September 22

Problems 1-3  (see below)
Problems 4-5  H&L Ch. 2 #9, 12
Problems 6-9  H&L Ch 3 # 4, 5, 7

Problem 1: 
Prove that the slope of a string at any point x is numerically equal to the ratio of the particle speed (vertical displacement speed) to the wave speed at that point.

Problem 2: 
A transverse sinusoidal wave is generated at one end of a long horizontal string by a bar which moves the end up and down through a distance of 0.50 cm.  The motion is continuous and is repeated regularly 120 times per second.  The string has a linear density of 0.25kg/m and is kept under a tension of 90 N. 

a)  Find the wave speed, amplitude, frequency and wavelength of the wave motion.
b)  Find the velocity and acceleration of the string at a point 62 cm from the generating point.  Assume that at y(0,0) = 0. 
c)  Find the maximum value of the vertical displacement speed and the maximum value of the vertical component of the (left-to-right) force acting on the string.  At what value of the phase, kx-ωt, do the maxima occur?
d)  What is the maximum power transferred along the string, and what is the string displacement where the maximum power occurs?
c)  What is the minimum power transferred along the string, and what is the string displacement where the minimum power occurs? 

Problem 3: 
A mathematically pure A-major chord consists of A at 440 Hz, C# at 550Hz and E at 660 Hz. 
a)  Calculate and plot the displacement vs. time for the superposition of three waves of these frequencies, assuming all are present at the same amplitude. 
b)  An AM radio station broadcasting at 600 kHz leaves its transmitter running, broadcasting a steady A-major chord.  Sketch the output signal (vs. time) and calculate the frequencies present in the signal. 

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Assignment 2
-  Sept.  8 - 15

Reading:      H&L  Chapter 1,  section 7
T&M Chapter 29 section 6
H&L  Chapter 2, sections 1-4
H&L  Chapter 3

Quiz :  Tuesday Sept. 13,  Problem will be one of:     Tipler Example 29-5
                                                                                    H&L Chapter 2, example problems 1, 2, 3, 
                                                                                    H&L Chapter 3, example problems 1, 2

Problem Set #2
Due:  Thursday, September 15 in class

Problem 1:   Tipler Ch. 29 # 82
Problems 2-5   H&L Ch 2, # 3, 4, 7, 8
Problems 6-7   H&L  Ch 3, # 2, 6
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Assignment 1
-  Aug. 31- Sept.  8

Reading:  H&S  Chapter 1, T&M Chapter 29 sections 3, 5 and 6.

Quiz #1:  Thursday Sept. 1,  Problem will be one of:  H&L Chapter 1, example problem 2 (p. 6) or problem 5 (p. 22).
Quiz #2:  Wednesday, Sept. 7,  Problem will be one of: 

H&L Ch. 1 # 11
Tipler Ch. 29 Example 29-2 (figure 29-6)
Tipler Ch. 29 Example 29-3 (figure 29-8)
Tipler Ch. 29 Example 29-4 (figure 29-12)

Problem Set #1
Due:  Thursday, September 8 in class

Problem # 1:  Derive the values of beta and omega-prime for a damped harmonic oscillator as discussed in class in terms of the physical parameters k (the spring constant) and b (the damping constant). 

Problems 2 - 4:   H&L Ch.1 # 2, 10, 16
Problems 5 - 6:   Tipler Ch. 29 # 35, 42

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Classroom Demonstrations

I will occasionally use classroom demonstrations to illustrate ideas in the course.  You should not treat these demonstrations as  opportunities for a nap - the material presented will be included in the material covered on examinations.  The demonstrations will be listed below as they are presented. 

September 1:  Mass on a spring with damped harmonic motion measured using a sonar ranger.  The envelope of the decay curve can be used to extract information about the damping coefficient.  Think about how that can be quantified.

September 7:  Eddy Current Pendulum - wood vs copper pendulum swinging between the poles of a strong magnet.  The damping of the copper pendulum is due to induced current and generation of magnetic field.   Think about energy storage and applications. 

September 13:  Coupled Harmonic Oscillators - two frequencies corresponding to in phase and out-of-phase oscillation, and display of displacement vs time and Fourier transform spectrum (amplitude spectrum) (Imran Shamim)

September 19:  Wave driven ratchet to lift a mass      
                           Tuning bars with a small mass attached to one to change the frequency slightly

September 20:  Beaker breaker - a sound wave is tuned in frequency to match the resonance frequency of a beaker.  When the volume (wave intensity) of the sound is increased, the beaker shatters.

September 26:  Longitudinal wave illustration on a slinky

September 28:  Synthesis of  Wave shapes and Carrier modulation with complex wave shapes, with Fourier spectrum analysis (Ari Halper-Stromberg)

October 3:  Bell in vacuum,  Wave forms displayed on oscilloscope and simultaneously played on speaker

October 5:  Speaker and candle:  physical displacement of speaker generates air currents that displace flame

October 6:  Doppler effect:  Whistling ball twirled overhead creates audible shifts in frequency.  Display of frequency spectrum vs. time shows the values of the shift quantitatively and allow the speed to be determined.  (Siwei Kwok)

October 11:  Resonance Tube - oscillator and plunger.  A speaker is set up at one end of a plastic tube, and a movable plunger sets a solid reflecting wall at the other end of the tube.  As the plunger is moved back and forth, the volume of the sound increases and decreases.

October 11 and 18:  Shive Machine - a parallel series of sticks mounted on a torsional wire illustrate wave motion.  Reflections at a fixed and a free end, and transmisssion into a second shive series with sticks of different lengths are shown.  Standing waves can be set up by controlling the driving frequency. 

October 19:  Two speakers both projecting the same bass signal.  Projection of sound in three dimensional path.  Reversal of phase of one speaker dramatically decreases  the intensity of the bass (low frequency) sound.  Concept of constructive interference vs. destructive interference. 

October 24:  A voltage pulse generator is used to create a pulse on a coaxial cable (transmission line).  The reflected pulse is detected a time later, and given the known (for that cable) wave speed, the length of the cable is determined.  Then a second cable of different impedance is connected and reflections from the junction and the termination are determined, and their amplitudes and phases are compared with predictions.  (Samuel Pinkava)

November 3:  Light bulb and radiometer with ruler - we measured intensity as a function of separation distance between the bulb and the radiometer.

November 8:  Refraction:  laser light into water, visual appearence of a rod half-immersed in water.  Total internal reflection:  laser light in  falling stream of water and in a curved thin film.

November 9:  Refraction:  laser light incident horizontally into a tank of water bends downward due to ??

November 17:  1)  Refracted images of can at corner of tank of water (Imran Shamim). 2)   Light and two polarizers - rotate second to demonstrate Malus' law.  Insert a third polarizer between the original two polarizers.  3)  Special quarter wave plate inserted at 45 degrees between two  polarizers. 

December 1:  Focusing of parallel rays with spherical and hyperbolic lenses.   String models of spherical and chromatic aberrations.  Repeat of November 17 polarization demos.  Three-filter Malus' law demo.  Creation of circularly polarized light with birefringent quarter-wave plate. 

December 6:  Michelson interferometer.   a)  laser source, relating the number of times an intensity minimum (fringe) passes to the wavelength of the laser source and the  mirror diplacement.  b)  white light source, relating the number of times the color oscillates through the spectrum to the wavelength and mirror displacement.  (Samuel Pinkava)

December 12:  Laser light source and slits of variable number, spacing and width (Ari Halper-Stromberg)

December 13:  Water prism (Siwei Kwok)

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Solution Sets and Handouts
these are downloadable files
or web links


Fourier Synthesis:
Go to the bottom of the page, enter a number in the “harmonics” box and select the “enter data” button, a window will open in which you can enter amplitudes and phases.  The simplest addition has all amplitudes = 1 and all phases = 0.  Try it for increasing numbers of harmonics.  These sums are limited to waves with frequency equal to multiples of a fixed base frequency. 
Fourier Series: 
Handout-sum of incident and reflected waves (total reflection)
Handout - sum of incident wave and partially reflected wave
some group velocity wave demonstrations
a nice set of animations of reflections
a nice standing wave animation
great quick time movies of EM wave behavior
Java applet of Brewster's angle.  Note the incident wave is shown as the combination of two orthogonal electric fields (magnetic fields not shown).  Be sure to use the view angle knob to get the full impact of the animation.
Handout- Table of impedances, etc. for different wave types
Handout - Notes on Michelson inteferometer
Handout - Notes on Birefringent quarter wave plate
Handout- Williams solutions for Tipler Ch 32 # 74 and 102
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Physics 273H
Honors Option

To receive honors credit, each student will prepare and present two classroom demonstration on topics relevant to the course material.   Presentations will graded and will count for 10% of the total course grade.  The remaining 90% will be determined by the normal 273 material.

Demonstrations can be based on the equipment and previously-developed demonstrations available in the Physics Department lecture-demonstration facility:


Students should discuss their ideas with me, and I will give feedback and help with accessing the necessary equipment and developing the demonstration. Each student must schedule one of the two demonstrations before Oct. 6.  Demonstrations must be scheduled in advance to match the course material.  No more than two demonstrations will be scheduled in any one week. 


Presentations should be approximately 10 minutes in length.  They should include 1)  an introduction of the subject in the context of the course material, 2)  a physical demonstration illustrating in a clear and compelling fashion a well-defined physical effect, and 3)  a brief presentation of a quantitative analysis of the observations.

The presentations will be evaluated using the following criteria:

1)  Level, organization and correctness of material presented  30%

2)  Effectiveness of the demonstration            40%
    a)  illustrating phenomenon of interest
    b)  allowing quantitative analysis –

3)  Quality of the presentation –          30%
e.g. does it hold class interest, can others take the information presented and use it effectively

Potentially useful demonstrations:

Some lecture demonstrations (see web page above) that have useful equipment and ideas that can be modified for a presentation for the material in the first 1/2 of the semester include:

G1-37 (data acquisition system includes fourier analyzer)
G2-26, G3-26  (different combinations of mass/spring possible, can couple with motion sensor)
H2-01, H2-28
H3-01, H3-02
H4-01, H4-02, H4-04, H4-52 (not shown on pages, but useful for good demos is fourier analyzer)

Some lecture demonstrations useful for the material in the second 1/2 of the semester include:

G4-41 Solitons
H1-27 Lissajous figures for sound
K8-04, K8-32    EM wave speed in transmission line, air, dielectric
K8-11, 13 EM standing waves
K8-42  Radiowave dipole pattern
L1-31 Laser cavity
L4-41, L4-04, L6-07,09  Microwave refraction
M1-01, 02, 03, 04, 11, 21, 22, M2-01  Laser Diffraction
M3-01, 04  Interferometer
M3-21, Microwave interferometry
M3-41  Fabry Perot interferometer

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Permission to redistribute the contents without alteration is granted to
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