Summary:
Instructional implications
Seeing is not believing.  Because they are using what they know to
interpret what we tell them, students often misinterpret even a clear
and compelling lecture or demonstration.  More mentally engaging
activities are required to have a more reliable effect.
Students are not blank slates.  We can use what we learn about
students’ knowledge to create lessons that build from appropriate
starting points. (e.g., cognitive conflict, bridging, etc.)
There’s more to a course than content. Students use their learning
to build (and confirm existing) expectations and understanding of
what science is about and how to do it.  To affect these
components, we have to pay explicit attention to these issues in
how we teach content.