










• 
Most
of PER on university students



has
been carried out with the population



of
engineers taking calculusbased physics.



• 
Most
of the need in AER at the university level



is
for the population of nonscience majors



taking
nonmathematical astronomy.



• 
Therefore,
most results are not directly applicable.


• 
We
can learn something useful



by
working through



the
general theory of thinking and learning.

