Key Ideas
n 1. Knowledge is associative
n 2. Learning is productive / constructive.
n The brain tries to make sense of new input
in terms of existing mental structures.
Ř We learn by analogy / metaphor
--   New constructions tend to be built from old.
n 3. Cognitive response is context dependent.
n The productive response depends on the context in which
new input is presented, including the student’s mental state.
Ř Students can use multiple models
--   Confusion about appropriate context can make it appear
as if students hold contradictory ideas at the same time