Supplementary Materials for Phys 798S

Lecture notes

Overhead transparencies for lecture 1

Physics Today article on Heike Kamerlingh Onnes's discovery of superconductivity.

Paul Canfield's article "Still Alluring and Hard to Predict at 100"

Critical fluctuations in HTS paper by Lobb.

Beasley Search for Practical New Superconductors - ASC 2012 presentation, and the associated paper

Overhead Transparencies and notes for lecture 2

Magnetically-levitated train using superconductors sets speed record

High-temperature superconductors used in electric power applications.

Lecture 3 slides and notes

Summary of normal metal and superconductor electrodynamics

Classic paper on the 2-Fluid model by Gorter

Superconducting Niobium cavity for surface impedance measurements

Superconducting wireless filters

Dissipated Power vs. Frequency (Normal vs. superconducting metals)

The Ferrell-Tinkham-Glover optical conductivity Sum Rule paper

Q+A with James Annett on the Optical Conductivity Sum Rule

Lecture 4 notes

Measurement of flux quantization

First flux quantization measurement papers by Deaver and Doll

Great introductory videos about superconductivity by Prof. Alfred Leitner

Lecture 5 summary

Background material: A nice discussion of the Free Electron Model that follows Kittel's Introduction to Solid State Physics, Chap. 6 of the 5th Edition.

The Cooper pair instability paper (Phys. Rev. 104, 1189 (1956))

Observed correlation of Tc with the density of states at the Fermi level in 4d transition metal alloys

p-wave(?) superconductivity in strontium ruthenate (Physics Today article)

Lecture 6 summary and Lecture 7 summary

Isotope effect exponent. Table of measured isotope effect exponents. Isotope effect paper by Garland (PRL 11, 114 (1963). Isotope effect in MgB2.

Background material: Debye model of lattice specific heat

Background material: Wikipedia entry for Phonons.

Vkk' for d-wave pairing. Use of this Vkk' to calculate superconducitng properties; Lenck and Carbotte (PRB 49, 4176 (1994)).

Carbotte's review article on "Properties of Boson-Exchange Superconductors"

The case for d-wave pairing in the cuprates, by Doug Scalapino.

Superconductivity in the Elements.

Lecture 8 Summary

Background material: Wikipedia entry for Second Quantization. Also Slater Determinant. Nice summary of Second Quantization: appendix of Waldram's book

The BCS paper (Phys. Rev. 108, 1175 (1957))

Overview of BCS theory by Cooper

Recollections on the development of BCS theory by Cooper, Schrieffer, and Bardeen

Lecture 9 summary

Background Material: Coherent States in Quantum Mechanics

Background Material: Grand Canonical Ensemble

BCS theory assumes equal abundance of spin-up and spin-down electrons. A recent Science paper by the MIT group shows that Fermionic superfluidity is robust against a substantial imbalance in spin populations.

Lecture 10 summary

Background Material: Variational Methods in Quantum Mechanics

A simple variational calculation from undergraduate QM: He atom ground state energy

BCS occupation distribution, compared to the Fermi function at Tc. Associated Mathematica notebook.

Lecture 11 summary

Background Material: Mean Field Theory

Mathematica calculation of approximate BCS gap temperature dependence

BCS Gap vs. Temperature in Fortran77 code.  (see

The weak-coupling limit universal value for 2D(0)/kBTc for a d-wave superconductor is 4.28. See Appendix A of this paper

Lecture 12 Summary

Overhead viewgraph on BCS energy gap

Electronic Entropy and Free Energy in normal metal and superconductors

Cartoon of the electron-phonon interaction and comparison of Tc and the pairing interaction energy scale

Lecture 13 Summary

Ultrasonic Attenuation (and other perturbations on the superconducting state) measurements

Coherence Effects in superconductors (Hebel-Schlicter peak, etc.)

Paper by P. W. Anderson on the pairing of time-reversed states in a Cooper Pair

Lecture 14 summary

Tunnel Junctions

Strong Coupling Superconductors

Lecture 15 summary

Nice example of a "do-it-yourself" BCS calculation from the ground up: Unconventional superconductivity in YPtBi and related topological semimetals

Lecture 16 Summary

Intermediate state of type-I superconductors (domain walls), and superconducitng nanowires

Resistance versus temperature of a superconducting nanowire

Lecture 17 Summary

Abrikosov vortex lattice (Mathematica notebook). Order parameter in square and triangular lattices

Vortex lattice imaging.

Gallery of Abrikosov vortex lattice images from the University of Oslo.

Lecture 18 Summary

Plots of single-vortex magnetic field and current for radii greater than the GL coherence length

The archived Little-Parks experiment lecture

Lecture 19 Summary

Vortex-Anti-Vortex annihilation in current-carrying superconducting strips

Flux flow resistivity

Vortex pinning

Lecture 20 summary

Josephson's paper on tunneling between two superconductors

Physics Today article on Bardeen and Josephson, "The Nobel Laureat versus the Graduate Student"

John Rowell presentation at ASC-2012 on Observing Josephson's Effects

Josephson voltage standard

R. Kautz presentation at ASC-2012 on The Josephson Voltage Standard

Am. J. Phys. article "The Josephson Effect and e over h" by John Clarke

Measuring the Current-Phase relation of a Josephson junction using an rf SQUID (Rifkin and Deaver)

Josephson current-phase relationship

Lecture 21 Summary

Inducing Josephson vortices with a microwave microscope - work by Sheng-Chiang Lee

Intrinsic Josephson effect in cuprate superconductors: Tunable THz source

Magnetic diffraction and Josephson vortex viewgraphs

Lecture 22 Summary

Paper on the Pendulum analog of the Josephson Junction

The Josephson microprocessor, developed in Japan in the 1980's

Experimental Shapiro steps in a Nb point contact junction

Lecture 23 Summary

SQUID application to underground radio . MEG measurements with SQUIDs. A gradiometer pickup makes the SQUID more sensitive to nearby sources, as opposed to 'noise' sources further away.

Phase-sensitive measurements and high-Tc p-SQUIDs.

Review article on phase-sensitive measurements using SQUIDs by Kirtley and Tsuei.

The original Superconducting Quantum Interference (SQIF) paper

Micro-Tesla MRI with a SQUID

Lecture 24 Summary

Measurement of fluctuation susceptibility in Al nanoparticles as evidence of non-zero orber parameter above Tc

Lecture 25 Summary

Measurement of fluctuation conductivity above Tc in 1D and 2D samples

Lecture 26 Summary

Critical fluctuations in HTS paper by Lobb. A discussion of the Ginzburg criterion for critical fluctuations is presented.

Prof. Lobb paper: "When are Superconductors Really Superconducting?".

Overheads from the Kosterlitz-Thouless lecture

Pearl paper on the current distribution for vortices in two-dimensional superconducting films

Lecture 27 Summary

Superfluid Helium. Vortices in superfluid 4He.

Lecture 28 Summary

Cuprate pairing slides

Observation of the "Meissner Effect" in rotating Helium by Hess and Fairbank

Phase diagram of 3He.