Some Web sites of interest and relevance to Physics 731

Fall 2007

General:

Highlights from Simulations for Solid State Physics

**Periodic
table, with extensive information about each element** inc. links to crystal
structure data etc., nice visualization option with Jmol

Colorful periodic table, with many sorting options

Metals without electrons: exotic quantum fluids (Lee & Schofield chapter)

Sorting categories for March 2008 APS Meeting (for comparison with Table of Contents of Ashcroft & Mermin!)

Structures of Simple Inorganic Solids, extensive lecture notes by Dr S.J. Heyes, Oxford, with many nice figures

Intro to SSP at U. of Delaware

Condensed Matter Physics at Valparaiso U. (advanced UG level)

Semiconductor Applet Service at U. of Buffalo

Lattice Structures:

X-ray crystallography course, C.L.B. Macdonald, U. of Windsor

**NRL's
compendium of crystal structure**
convenient, complete, visualization option, *awesome*

Pictures of common crystal lattices (from BALSAC)

Crystal systems, in the context of minerals, physical characteristics of minerals ; alternative

Neutron-based results, extensive links to databases (from ILL, Grenoble)

Gallery of high-Tc superconducting copper oxides (by S. Weber)

SiC, example of stacking sequences

AT&T Labs catalog of lattices, extensive and often technical

Quasitiler 3.0, for constructing quasicrystals in 2-D, with good references

Quasicrystal blurb by Cornell group

Research at Iowa State on quasicrystal surfaces, with references

**Fibonacci
chain**, part of introduction to quasicrystals

Discovery of stable binary quasicrystals (Physics Today)

Manual for BALSAC, software for visualizing various surface structures; available (see instructor)

Authoritative information on nomenclature for crystal families and Bravais-lattice types

NZ "vision test" part of Geometry Junkyard

Definition of Symmetry Elements in Space Groups and Point Groups (meaty, authoritative)

Brief summary of crystal systems and Miller indices (from mineralogy class)

Notes on Symmetry in Crystallography from Univ. of Oklahoma (inc. extinctions)

Steffen
Weber homepage* *(applets on structure, some on reciprocal lattice;
many nice, some jam in downloading; seemingly no longer supported)

Structure viewer by Steffen Weber

Crystal shape viewer by Steffen Weber

TiO2 structures inc. rutile and ways to view rutile

**Nanotubes
made simple -- single wall nanotubes (SWNT)** , with downloadables

Nanotube creater, by Steffen Weber

VRML gallery of nanotubes, inc. chiral, by Steffen Weber

**Defects
in Crystals**** **(online book--outstanding and free--by H. Föll,
also available in downloadable
pdf) --esp. § 5.1.1

**Reciprocal
Lattices: **

**Tutorial
on reciprocal lattices**, somewhat pedestrian but nice animations

IUCr "pamphlet" on reciprocal lattices (with tensor notation)

Crystal diffraction, with nice 2d diagram

Laue diffraction, Steffen Weber applet

**Detailed description of Ewald construction** (click on inset grid for step-by-step)

Ewald construction for a surface or 2D lattice

Summary of diffraction, nice treatment

**ReciprOgraph****,
an impressive applet from EPFL to calculate the intensities of any substance
diffracted by x-rays. Does crystals and powders and shows in-phase plane**.

Steffen Weber's Java Structure Viewer

**Adjustable
2D lattice with 2-atom basis, and its reciprocal (inc. intensity variations)**
excellent, succinct, versatile **alternative site **

"Interactive Structure Factor Tutorial"

Description of XrayView, software package tutorial about x-ray diffraction, for use with Silicon Graphics computers

Collection of sites related to neutron scattering

Diffraction techniques overview

M. Van Hove's surface/interface theory site: software page

Chemical aspects, bonds:

"Structures of simple inorganic solids" (S.J. Heyes, Oxford U., Inorganic Chem.)

Structure, bonds, forces, useful tables (B.S. Mitchell, Tulane U.)

Simple (perhaps too much so) discussion of covalent bonds via tunneling

**Covalent
bonds, correcting common misconceptions****, by F. Rioux** (Distilled
version, omitting QM of bond, from *Chemical Educator*; original source:
J.
C. Slater, J. Chem. Phys. 1, 687 (1933)!)

**Evjen
method: illustration for NaCl**

Succinct summary of Ewald summation method from Franz J. Vesely's course Introduction to Computational Physics

Universal binding curve (details for metals, from condensed matter to nuclear)

**Lattice Vibrations***:*

**Phonon
dispersion and display of TA and TO modes in 1D** (excellent java app)

**Simulations of phonons**, geared toward 3D and nanocrystals, with lots of helpful background

Phonon dispersion in various crystals

Phonon density of states via "debye"

Phonon dispersion and DOS of diamond, BC8, & ST12

Pedagogical article on Grueneisen constant in 1D model

Einstein, Debye, & Grueneisen models, Mathematica notebook debye.nb (J.J. Kelly, Statistical Physics Courseware)

Note on Mössbauer spectroscopy

Localized modes of anharmonic chain

For the ambitious: OpenPhonon: an open source computer code for lattice-dynamical calculations

*Conductivity:*

Random walk applet, along with elementary discussion of diffusion

Fermi gases:

Statistical mechanics of ideal fermi gas, Mathematica notebook fermi.nb (J.J. Kelly, Statistical Physics Courseware)

Electronic band structure:

Kronig-Penney
applet (includes wavefunctions,
elegant but slow download) and another
(also plots effective mass) and yet another
(nice controls, so-so graphics) and an **excellent
site, newly discovered**

Nice site on periodic potentials, with java applet for venerable Kronig-Penney model (This site is in Spanish, but the physics is readily understandable. Or you can translate it using Babel Fish.)

Database of Fermi surfaces of elemental metals (stunning graphics, very informative)

Density of states in free-electron and tight-binding models

**Tutorial
on nanotubes & graphene bandstructure, with nice pictures**** (Schönenberger)**

Rather clear picture of wrapping

Crystal tutorial project, example of options in modern calculations

Electrons in external fields:

Semiconductors:

**Extensive
collection of applets about semiconductors**
(U. of Buffalo)

**Conductivity:
dependencies for Si, Ge, diamond**

Britney Spears's Guide to Semiconductor Physics (ghost written, d'uh!)

**Formation
of pn junction and its band diagram**

Diffusion, drift, recombination: java applet on Haynes-Shockley exp't

**Principles
of Semiconductor Devices****, free webtext by Bart van Zeghbroeck**

Tight Binding Programs for Computing the Band Structure of Semiconductors

*Electrons, including electron-electron interactions:*

Thomas-Fermi atom (download may be problematic)

Spin systems:

Paramagnetism of spin-1/2 systems, Mathematica notebook spin-half.nb (J.J. Kelly, Statistical Physics Courseware)

Thermodynamics of paramagnetism, Mathematica notebook paramag.nb (J.J. Kelly, Statistical Physics Courseware)

Phase transitions:

Broken symmetry and order parameters (by J. Sethna)

Hysteresis (by J. Sethna)

Mean field model of ferromagnetism, Mathematica notebook Weiss.nb (J.J. Kelly, Statistical Physics Courseware)

Melting of metal--crude animation

**Real-space Structural Probes***:*

XPS (x-ray photoemission spectroscopy), inc. "universal curve" (U. of Nottingham)

Surface science techniques, once an outstanding compendium, now many broken links

Grant Bunker's tutorial documents on X-ray absorption fine-structure techniques

Newville's fundamentals of EXAFS, too much info but great figures!

Daresbury overview of EXAFS, inc. link to curved-wave theory

STM tutorial (by T-W Hui, U. of Guelph)

Beautiful STM images courtesy of IBM

Principle of field emission microscope

Field ion & field emission micrographs

Advanced topics:

An Introduction to Solid State Many-Body Theory (Univ. of Exeter)

**[Fermi
and] Non-Fermi Liquids** [A. J. Schofield, Contemporary
Physics 40, 95 (1999)] (or download
from Schofield's publication page)

*Last updated Nov. 27, 2007*