Some Web sites of interest and relevance to Physics 731

Fall 2005

General:

*Highlights from Simulations for Solid State Physics*

Periodic table, with extensive information about each element inc. links to crystal structure data etc.

Colorful periodic table, with many sorting options

Metals without electrons: exotic quantum fluids (Lee & Schofield chapter)

Sorting categories for March 2006 APS Meeting (for comparison with Table of Contents of Ashcroft & Mermin!)

Structures of Simple Inorganic Solids, extensive lecture notes by Dr S.J. Heyes, Oxford, with many nice figures

Intro to SSP at U. of Delaware

Condensed Matter Physics 1 at Brock U. (~ first half of Phys. 731; taught by Prof. F. S. Razavi)

Condensed Matter Physics at
Valparaiso U. (advanced UG level)

Lattice Structures:

**NRL's compendium
of crystal structure** convenient, complete, visualization option, *awesome*

Space groups, from crystallography course

**Escher web sketch** & alternative
site (software for drawing repeated patterns in 2D; link in above page is
broken!)

Nice graphic of 14 Bravais lattices

Pictures of common crystal lattices (from BALSAC)

Crystal systems, in the context of minerals

Survey of structures (from ILL, Grenoble, France)

Gallery of 3D crystal structures of contemporary interest (from ILL, Grenoble)

Semiconductor diamond-like structures, rotatable and with info panels

Gallery of high-Tc superconductors (from ILL, Grenoble, France)

Gallery of high-Tc superconducting copper oxides (by S. Weber)

AT&T Labs catalog of lattices, extensive and often technical

Quasitiler 3.0, for constructing quasicrystals in 2-D, with good references

**Quasicrystals**
(excellent account, S. Weber, Emory), inc. Fibonacci chain

Quasicrystal blurb by Cornell group

Research at Iowa State on quasicrystal surfaces, with references

Manual for BALSAC, software for visualizing various surface structures; available (see instructor)

Authoritative information on nomenclature for crystal families and Bravais-lattice types

Java applet re screw axis (warning: download can be problematic)

Definition of Symmetry Elements in Space Groups and Point Groups (meaty, authoritative)

Brief summary of crystal systems and Miller indices (from mineralogy class)

Pictures of crystal structures, convenient collection by W. K. Chan; can be rotated, resized, etc.; displays conventional unit cell and pairs of atoms for preset alignments

Steffen Weber homepage (applets on structure, some on reciprocal lattice; many nice, some jam in downloading)

PowerPoint presentation on dislocations, defects, etc. (by Pranesh Aswath, U. Texas Arlington)

**Defects in Crystals****
**(online book--outstanding and free--by H. Föll, also available in downloadable
pdf) --esp. § 5.1.1

**Reciprocal Lattices: **

**Tutorial
on reciprocal lattices**, somewhat pedestrian
but nice animations

IUCr "pamphlet" on reciprocal lattices (with tensor notation)

**Adjustable
2D lattice with 2-atom basis, and its reciprocal (inc. intensity variations)**
excellent, succinct, versatile

"Interactive Structure Factor Tutorial"

**Detailed
description of Ewald construction** (click on
inset grid for step-by-step)

Ewald construction for a surface or 2D lattice

Quick introduction to Miller indices, some convenient pictures

Summary of diffraction, nice treatment

Description of XrayView, software package tutorial about x-ray diffraction, for use with Silicon Graphics computers

Collection of sites related to neutron scattering

Diffraction techniques overview

M.
Van Hove's surface/interface theory site: software page

Chemical aspects, bonds:

"Structures of simple inorganic solids" (S.J. Heyes, Oxford U., Inorganic Chem.)

Structure, bonds, forces, useful tables (B.S. Mitchell, Tulane U. <-- so, alas,not currently available)

Simple (perhaps too much so) discussion of covalent bonds via tunneling

Covalent (& ionic) bonds, from chemistry course at UFL

**Covalent
bonds, correcting common misonceptions****, by F. Rioux** (Distilled
version, omitting QM of bond, from *Chemical Educator*; original source:
J.
C. Slater, J. Chem. Phys. 1, 687 (1933)!)

**Evjen method: illustration
for NaCl**

Succinct summary of Ewald summation method from Franz J. Vesely's course Introduction to Computational Physics

Simple description of quantum solids (hydrogen and helium)

Universal binding curve (details for metals, from condensed matter to nuclear)

**Lattice Vibrations***:*

Phonon dispersion of 1D chain, T (transverse) display

Phonon dispersion for 1D diatomic chain

**Phonon
dispersion and display of TA and TO modes in 1D** (excellent java
app)

Phonon dispersion in 1D and some 3D (mostly in French)

Development of (2D) lattice vibrations by oscillating single atom

Phonon dispersion in various crystals

Phonon density of states via "debye"

Phonon dispersion and DOS of diamond, BC8, & ST12

Pedagogical article on Grueneisen constant in 1D model

Einstein, Debye, & Grueneisen models, Mathematica notebook debye.nb (J.J. Kelly, PHYS603)

Note on Mössbauer spectroscopy

Localized modes of anharmonic chain

For the ambitious: OpenPhonon: an open source computer code for lattice-dynamical calculations

*Conductivity:*

Random walk applet, along with elementary discussion of diffusion

Fermi gases:

Fermi distribution: temperature dependence

Statistical mechanics of ideal fermi gas, Mathematica notebook fermi.nb (J.J. Kelly, PHYS603)

Electronic band structure:

Kronig-Penney applet (includes wavefunctions, elegant but slow download) and another (also plots effective mass) and yet another (nice controls, so-so graphics)

Nice site on periodic potentials, with java applet for venerable Kronig-Penney model (This site is in Spanish, but the physics is readily understandable. Or you can translate it using Babel Fish.)

Database of Fermi surfaces of elemental metals (stunning graphics, very informative)

Electrons in 2D hexagonal TB lattice: energy contours and DOS

Density of states in free-electron and tight-binding models

Tutorial on nanotubes, with nice pictures

Rather clear picture of wrapping

Bandstructure of graphene and carbon nanotubes (Schönenberger)

Nice paper on theory of Wigner crystals in 3D

Tutorial on density functional theory (Nogueira, Castro, & Marques)

Crystal tutorial project, example of options in modern calculations

Electrons in external fields:

Semiconductors:

**Extensive collection
of applets about semiconductors** (U. of Buffalo)

**Fermi
level, carrier concentration, doping**

**Conductivity:
dependencies for Si, Ge, diamond**

Electrons in Intrinsic Semiconductor Simulation

Britney Spears's Guide to Semiconductor Physics (no doubt ghost written!)

Diffusion, drift, recombination: java applet on Haynes-Shockley exp't

Formation of pn junction and its band diagram

Tutorial/book on semiconductor devices

pn Junction Lab, part of NanoHUB

Principles of Semiconductor Devices, free webtext by Bart van Zeghbroeck

Tight Binding Programs for Computing the Band Structure of Semiconductors

Spin systems:

Paramagnetism of spin-1/2 systems, Mathematica notebook spin-half.nb (J.J. Kelly, PHYS603)

Thermodynamics of paramagnetism, Mathematica notebook paramag.nb (J.J. Kelly, PHYS603)

Phase transitions:

Broken symmetry and order parameters (by J. Sethna)

Hysteresis (by J. Sethna)

Hysteresis applet and description

Another java hysteresis simulation

Mean field model of ferromagnetism, Mathematica notebook Weiss.nb (J.J. Kelly, PHYS603)

Melting of metal--crude animation

**Real-space Structural Probes***:*

XPS (x-ray photoemission spectroscopy), inc. "universal curve" (U. of Nottingham)

Surface science techniques, outstanding compendium

Grant Bunker's tutorial documents on X-ray absorption fine-structure techniques

Newville's fundamentals of EXAFS, too much info but great figures!

Daresbury overview of EXAFS, inc. link to curved-wave theory

STM tutorial (by T-W Hui, U. of Guelph)

Beautiful STM images courtesy of IBM

SPM (scanning probe microscopy) tutorial (by James R. Smith)

Principle of field emission microscope

Field ion & field emission micrographs

Advanced topics:

An Introduction to Solid State Many-Body Theory (Univ. of Exeter)

**[Fermi
and] Non-Fermi Liquids** [A. J. Schofield, Contemporary
Physics 40, 95 (1999)] (or download
from Schofield's publication page)

*Last updated Nov. 22, 2005*