Some Web sites of interest and relevance to Physics 731

Fall 2004

General:

*Highlights from Simulations for Solid State Physics*

Periodic table, with extensive information about each element inc. links to crystal structure data etc.

Colorful periodic table, with many sorting options

Metals without electrons: exotic quantum fluids (Lee & Schofield chapter)

Sorting categories for March 2005 APS Meeting (for comparison with Table of Contents of Ashcroft & Mermin!)

Structures
of Simple Inorganic Solids, extensive lecture notes by Dr S.J. Heyes, Oxford,
with many nice figures

Lattice Structures:

Pictures of common crystal lattices

Space groups, from crystallography course

Crystal systems, in the context of minerals

Survey of structures (from ILL, Grenoble, France)

Gallery of 3D crystal structures of contemporary interest (from ILL, Grenoble)

Semiconductor diamond-like structures, rotatable and with info panels

Gallery of high-Tc superconductors (from ILL, Grenoble, France)

Gallery of high-Tc superconducting copper oxides (by S. Weber)

Crystal structure gallery (from exhibit AIST-Kansai)

AT&T Labs catalog of lattices, extensive and often technical

Quasitiler 3.0, for constructing quasicrystals in 2-D, with good references

Quasicrystals (excellent account, S. Weber, Emory), inc. Fibonacci chain

Quasicrystal blurb by Cornell group

Research at Iowa State on quasicrystal surfaces, with references

Manual for BALSAC, software for visualizing various surface structures; available (see instructor)

Manual for ARTbuild, an interactive program for creation of atomic structures; available (see instructor)

Authoritative information on nomenclature for crystal families and Bravais-lattice types

Java applet re screw axis (warning: download can be problematic)

Definition of Symmetry Elements in Space Groups and Point Groups (meaty, authoritative)

Brief summary of crystal systems and Miller indices (from mineralogy class)

Pictures of crystal structures, convenient collection by W. K. Chan; can be rotated, resized, etc.; displays conventional unit cell and pairs of atoms for preset alignments

Steffen Weber homepage (applets on structure, some on reciprocal lattice; many nice, some jam in downloading)

Escher Web Sketch (entertaining software for drawing repeated patterns)

Reciprocal Lattices:

Tutorial on reciprocal lattices, somewhat pedestrian but nice animations

IUCr "pamphlet" on reciprocal lattices (with tensor notation)

Adjustable 2D lattice with 2-atom basis, and its reciprocal (inc. intensity variations) excellent, succinct, versatile

"Interactive Structure Factor Tutorial"

Detailed description of Ewald construction (click on inset grid for step-by-step)

Ewald construction (simple) and rotating crystal method

Ewald construction for a surface or 2D lattice

Quick introduction to Miller indices, some convenient pictures

Summary of diffraction, nice treatment

Description of XrayView, software package tutorial about x-ray diffraction, for use with Silicon Graphics computers

Collection of sites related to neutron scattering

Diffraction techniques overview

M. Van Hove's LEED [theory] site

**Real-space Structural Probes***:*

XPS (x-ray photoemission spectroscopy), inc. "universal curve" (U. of Nottingham)

Surface science techniques, outstanding compendium

Grant Bunker's tutorial documents on X-ray absorption fine-structure techniques

Newville's fundamentals of EXAFS, too much info but great figures!

Daresbury overview of EXAFS, inc. link to curved-wave theory

STM tutorial (by T-W Hui, U. of Guelph)

Beautiful STM images courtesy of IBM

SPM (scanning probe microscopy) tutorial (by James R. Smith)

Principle of field emission microscope

Field ion & field emission micrographs

Chemical aspects, bonds

"Structures of simple inorganic solids" (S.J. Heyes, Oxford U., Inorganic Chem.)

Structure, bonds, forces, useful tables (B.S. Mitchell, Tulane U.)

Simple discussion of covalent bonds & tunneling

Collection of internet resources about chemistry

Evjen method: illustration for NaCl

Succinct summary of Ewald summation method from Franz J. Vesely's course Introduction to Computational Physics

Use of Ewald method in simulation package

**Lattice Vibrations***:*

Phonon dispersion of 1D chain, T (transverse) display

Phonon dispersion for 1D diatomic chain

Phonon dispersion and display of TA and TO modes in 1D (excellent java app)

Phonon dispersion in 1D and some 3D (mostly in French)

Development of (2D) lattice vibrations by oscillating single atom

Phonon dispersion of diamond and of graphite

Phonon dispersion in various crystals

Phonon density of states via "debye"

Phonon dispersion and DOS of diamond, BC8, & ST12

Phonon dispersion and DOS of BN

Einstein, Debye, & Grueneisen models, Mathematica notebook (J.J. Kelly, PHYS603)

Somewhat more detailed description of Raman spectroscopy

Note on Mössbauer spectroscopy

Localized modes of anharmonic chain

For the ambitious: OpenPhonon: an open source computer code for lattice-dynamical calculations

*Conductivity:*

Heat transfer between plates by hard particles

Random walk applet, along with elementary discussion of diffusion

Fermi gases:

Fermi distribution: temperature dependence

Statistical mechanics of ideal fermi gas, Mathematica notebook (J.J. Kelly, PHYS603)

Electronic band structure:

Nice site on periodic potentials, with java applet for venerable Kronig-Penney model (This site is in Spanish, but the physics is readily understandable. Or you can translate it using Babel Fish.)

Electrons in 2D hexagonal TB lattice: energy contours and DOS

Density of states in free-electron and tight-binding models

Tutorial on nanotubes, with nice pictures

Rather clear picture of wrapping

Bandstructure of graphene and carbon nanotubes (Sch\"onenberger)

Nice paper on theory of Wigner crystals in 3D

Tutorial on density functional theory (Nogueira, Castro, & Marques)

Crystal tutorial project, example of options in modern calculations

Electrons in external fields:

Semiconductors:

Extensive collection of applets about semiconductors (U. of Buffalo)

Fermi level, carrier concentration, doping

Conductivity: dependencies for Si, Ge, diamond

Diffusion, drift, recombination: java applet on Haynes-Shockley exp't

Formation of pn junction and its band diagram

Tutorial/book on semiconductor devices

Principles of Semiconductor Devices, free webtext by Bart van Zeghbroeck

Tight Binding Programs for Computing the Band Structure of Semiconductors

Spin systems

Paramagnetism of spin-1/2 systems, Mathematica notebook (J.J. Kelly, PHYS603)

Thermodynamics of paramagnetism, Mathematica notebook (J.J. Kelly, PHYS603)

Phase transitions

Broken symmetry and order parameters (by J. Sethna)

Hysteresis (by J. Sethna)

Hysteresis applet and description

Another java hysteresis simulation

Mean field model of ferromagnetism, Mathematica notebook (J.J. Kelly, PHYS603)

Melting of metal--crude animation

Advanced topics

An Introduction to Solid State Many-Body Theory (Univ. of Exeter)