2.3.1 Compton Scattering
A simple experiment consisting of a verification of the energy formula
for the Compton effect (and thereby the quantum nature of electromagnetic radiation) can
be done using coincidence of the pulses from movable NaI(Tl) scintillator and a fixed
Alternate possibilities are to verify the Klein-Nishina formula for the
intensity of scattered Compton radiation, in which case the efficiency of the NaI crystals
enters, or to check the simultaneity of the two emitted photons, in which case a
time-to-amplitude converter may be used on the scintillator outputs.
The laboratory has a number of gamma sources of
microcurie and millicurie activities with a variety of gamma energies. The various
interactions of gammas with matter can be seen in the spectra which these sources produce
in NaI(Tl) scintillation crystals and the technology of energy conversion and pulse height
analysis can be studied, leading to a calibration of the system. References
- A. H. Compton, Phys. Rev. 21, 483
(1923); 22, 409 (1923). These are the
original publications on Compton Scattering.
- A. H. Compton, "The Scattering
of X-Rays as Particles." Am. J. Phys. 29, 817 (1961). This is an article on
the history of Compton scattering.
- A. C. Melissinos, Experiments in Modern Physics. New York:
Academic Press, 1966. QC33.M52. Look at Sect. 6.3 for description of the experiment and at
Chap. 9 for time coincidence techniques.
- R. F. Singhal and A. J. Burns,
"Verification of Compton Collision and Klein-Nishina formulas - An Undergraduate
Laboratory Experiment," Am. J. Phys. 46, 646 (1978).
- M. Stamatelatos, "Compton
Scattering Experiment," Am. J. Phys. 40, 1871 (1972).
- A. A. Bartlett, J. H. Wilson, O. W. Lyle, G. F. Bertsch and J. A. Nolen, "Simple
Demonstration of the Compton Effect," Am J. Phys. 52, 183 (1984).
- W. R. French, "Precision
Compton-Effect Experiment," Am. J. Phys. 33, 523 (1965).
- C. H. Chow and J. S. Herold,
"Compton-Scattering Experiment Using Low-Activity Gamma-Ray Sources," Am. J.
Phys. 33, 1042 (1965).
- G. C. Kyker, "Resolving Time
Effect on Counting Statistics," Am. J. Phys. 49, 561 (1981).
- D. W. Preston and E. R. Dietz, The art of Experimental Physics,
(John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991). QC33.P74.
- Particle Data Group, "Particle
Detectors, Absorbers, and Ranges," Rev. Mod. Phys. 56, No. 2, Part II, S48. *
- F. C. Young, H. T. Heaton, G. W.
Phillips, P. D. Forsyth, and J. B. Marion, "Peak-to-Total Ratios and Efficiencies for
a 5" Dia. by 5" NaI Crystals," Nucl. Instrum. Methods 44, 109
- W. E. Miller, J. Reynolds, and W.
J. Snow, "Efficiencies and Photofractions for Sodium-Iodide Crystals," Rev. Sci.
Instrum. 28, 717 (1957). Q184.R5.
- W. R. French, W. M. Wehrbein, and
S. E. Moore, "Measurement of Photoelectric, Compton and Pair Production Cross
Sections in Ge," Am. J. Phys. 37, 391 (1969).
- G. T. Ewan and A. J. Tavendale, "High Resolution Studies of
Gamma-ray Spectra Using Lithium Drift Germanium Gamma-Ray Spectrometers," Can. J.
Phys. 42, 2286 (1964). Good examples of gamma-ray spectra at higher resolution. *
- W. R. French, P. L. LeShure, and
J. L. Curran, "Lithium Drifted Germanium Detectors" Am. J. Phys. 37, 11
- D. K. McDaniels and K. Battleson,
"Germanium Detectors and the Compton Effect," Am. J. Phys. 35, 837
- E. C. Stewart, et al., Harshaw Scintillation Phosphors,
(2nd Ed.), (Harshaw Chemical Co., Cleveland, 1978). See thesection on Sodium Iodide
detectors. Note the temperature dependence of NaI(Tl) detectors.
- Photomultiplier Handbook, (Burle Industries, Inc.,Lancaster, Pa., 1989).
This is a complete guide to the understanding of photomultiplier tubes. Note the
temperature dependence of photomultiplier tubes.
- Glenn F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement, New York:
John Wiley (2000). To be added to GL library 10/00.
- William R. Leo, Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics
Experiments, New York: Springer Verlag (1996). QC793.L46 Modern
treatment of devices and techniques.
- P. Iredale,"The Effect of
the Non-Proportional Response of NaI(Tl) Crystals to Electrons Upon the Resolution for Y-Rays,"
Nucl. Instrum. Methods 11, 340-346 (1961).
- R.W. Gammon,"Fitting
Statistics for Gaussian Peaks," Grad Lab Handout (1997)
- IEEE Test Procedure for
Amplifiers and Preamplifiers for Semiconductor Radiation Detectors, (The Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1969).
* Missing from archive 6/00
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