2.3.1 Compton Scattering

A simple experiment consisting of a verification of the energy formula for the Compton effect (and thereby the quantum nature of electromagnetic radiation) can be done using coincidence of the pulses from movable NaI(Tl) scintillator and a fixed plastic scintillator.

Alternate possibilities are to verify the Klein-Nishina formula for the intensity of scattered Compton radiation, in which case the efficiency of the NaI crystals enters, or to check the simultaneity of the two emitted photons, in which case a time-to-amplitude converter may be used on the scintillator outputs.

The laboratory has a number of gamma sources of microcurie and millicurie activities with a variety of gamma energies. The various interactions of gammas with matter can be seen in the spectra which these sources produce in NaI(Tl) scintillation crystals and the technology of energy conversion and pulse height analysis can be studied, leading to a calibration of the system. References

  1. A. H. Compton, Phys. Rev. 21, 483 (1923); 22, 409 (1923). These are the original publications on Compton Scattering.
  2. A. H. Compton, "The Scattering of X-Rays as Particles." Am. J. Phys. 29, 817 (1961). This is an article on the history of Compton scattering.
  3. A. C. Melissinos, Experiments in Modern Physics. New York: Academic Press, 1966. QC33.M52. Look at Sect. 6.3 for description of the experiment and at Chap. 9 for time coincidence techniques.
  4. R. F. Singhal and A. J. Burns, "Verification of Compton Collision and Klein-Nishina formulas - An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment," Am. J. Phys. 46, 646 (1978).
  5. M. Stamatelatos, "Compton Scattering Experiment," Am. J. Phys. 40, 1871 (1972).
  6. A. A. Bartlett, J. H. Wilson, O. W. Lyle, G. F. Bertsch and J. A. Nolen, "Simple Demonstration of the Compton Effect," Am J. Phys. 52, 183 (1984).
  7. W. R. French, "Precision Compton-Effect Experiment," Am. J. Phys. 33, 523 (1965).
  8. C. H. Chow and J. S. Herold, "Compton-Scattering Experiment Using Low-Activity Gamma-Ray Sources," Am. J. Phys. 33, 1042 (1965).
  9. G. C. Kyker, "Resolving Time Effect on Counting Statistics," Am. J. Phys. 49, 561 (1981).
  10. D. W. Preston and E. R. Dietz, The art of Experimental Physics, (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991). QC33.P74.
  11. Particle Data Group, "Particle Detectors, Absorbers, and Ranges," Rev. Mod. Phys. 56, No. 2, Part II, S48. *
  12. F. C. Young, H. T. Heaton, G. W. Phillips, P. D. Forsyth, and J. B. Marion, "Peak-to-Total Ratios and Efficiencies for a 5" Dia. by 5" NaI Crystals," Nucl. Instrum. Methods 44, 109 (1966).
  13. W. E. Miller, J. Reynolds, and W. J. Snow, "Efficiencies and Photofractions for Sodium-Iodide Crystals," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 28, 717 (1957). Q184.R5.
  14. W. R. French, W. M. Wehrbein, and S. E. Moore, "Measurement of Photoelectric, Compton and Pair Production Cross Sections in Ge," Am. J. Phys. 37, 391 (1969).
  15. G. T. Ewan and A. J. Tavendale, "High Resolution Studies of Gamma-ray Spectra Using Lithium Drift Germanium Gamma-Ray Spectrometers," Can. J. Phys. 42, 2286 (1964). Good examples of gamma-ray spectra at higher resolution. *
  16. W. R. French, P. L. LeShure, and J. L. Curran, "Lithium Drifted Germanium Detectors" Am. J. Phys. 37, 11 (1969).
  17. D. K. McDaniels and K. Battleson, "Germanium Detectors and the Compton Effect," Am. J. Phys. 35, 837 (1967).
  18. E. C. Stewart, et al., Harshaw Scintillation Phosphors, (2nd Ed.), (Harshaw Chemical Co., Cleveland, 1978). See thesection on Sodium Iodide detectors. Note the temperature dependence of NaI(Tl) detectors.
  19. Photomultiplier Handbook, (Burle Industries, Inc.,Lancaster, Pa., 1989). This is a complete guide to the understanding of photomultiplier tubes. Note the temperature dependence of photomultiplier tubes.
  20. Glenn F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement, New York: John Wiley (2000).  To be added to GL library 10/00.
  21. William R. Leo, Techniques for Nuclear and  Particle Physics Experiments, New York: Springer Verlag (1996).   QC793.L46  Modern treatment of devices and techniques.
  22. P. Iredale,"The Effect of the Non-Proportional Response of NaI(Tl) Crystals to Electrons Upon the Resolution for Y-Rays," Nucl. Instrum. Methods 11, 340-346 (1961).
  23. R.W. Gammon,"Fitting Statistics for Gaussian Peaks," Grad Lab Handout (1997)
  24. IEEE Test Procedure for Amplifiers and Preamplifiers for Semiconductor Radiation Detectors, (The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1969).

* Missing from archive 6/00

 

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