Many special symbols are commonly used in mathematics. Some of them the we use here are:

∃ -- there exists

∀ -- for all

⊂ -- the set on the left is contained in the set on the right

⊆ -- the set on the left is contained in or equal to the set on the right

⊃ -- the set on the left contains the set on the right

⊄-- the set on the left is not contained in the set on the right

∈ -- the item on the left is an element of the set on the right

∉ -- the item on the left is not an element of the set on the right

∅ -- the empty set

⊥ -- is perpendicular to

∝ -- is proportional to

∴ -- therefore

∇ -- the gradient operator

∏ -- product of (as in )

∑ -- sum of (as in )

⊕ -- direct sum (used to build larger vector spaces)

⊗ -- direct product (used to build more complex vector spaces)

University of Maryland | Physics Department | Physics 374 Home |
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This page prepared by Edward F. Redish

Department of Physics

University of Maryland

College Park, MD 20742

Phone: (301) 405-6120

Email: redish@umd.edu

Last revision 25. October, 2005.